CR 1220 3V Lithium Coin Cell Battery
A watch battery or button cell is a small single cell battery shaped as a squat cylinder typically 5 to 25 mm (0.197 to 0.984 in) in diameter and 1 to 6 mm (0.039 to 0.236 in) high — like a button on a garment, hence the name. A metal can forms the bottom body and positive terminal of the cell. An insulated top cap is the negative terminal.
Button cells are used to power small portable electronics devices such as wrist watches, pocket calculators, artificial cardiac pacemakers, implantable cardiac defibrillators, automobile keyless entry transmitters, and hearing aids. Wider variants are usually called coin cells. Devices using button cells are usually designed around a cell giving a long service life, typically well over a year in continuous use in a wristwatch. Most button cells have low self-discharge and hold their charge for a long time if not used.
Relatively high-power devices such as hearing aids may use a zinc–air battery which have much higher capacity for a given size, but dry out over a few weeks even if not used. Button cells are single cells, usually disposable primary cells. Common anode materials are zinc or lithium. Common cathode materials are manganese dioxide, silver oxide, carbon monofluoride, cupric oxide or oxygen from the air. Mercuric oxide button cells were formerly common, but are no longer available due to the toxicity and environmental effects of mercury.
Cells of different chemical composition made in the same size are mechanically interchangeable. However, the composition can affect service life and voltage stability. Using the wrong cell may lead to short life or improper operation (for example, light metering on a camera requires a stable voltage, and silver cells are usually specified). Sometimes different cells of the same type and size and specified capacity in milliampere-hour (mAh) are optimized for different loads by using different electrolytes, so that one may have longer service life than the other if supplying a relatively high current.